European Language Resources Association

febrero 26, 2008 en 12:35 pm | Publicado en J.Abaitua | Deja un comentario

The European Language Resources Association (ELRA) was established as a non-profit organisation in Luxembourg in February, 1995.

ELRA is the driving force to make available the language resources for language engineering and to evaluate language engineering technologies.


In order to achieve this goal, ELRA is active in:

  • identification
  • distribution
  • collection
  • validation
  • standardisation
  • improvement
  • promoting the production of language resources
  • supporting the infrastructure to perform evaluation campaigns and in developing a scientific field of language resources
  • evaluation


 

 

 

 

 

 

Catalogue of Language Resources:

link: http://catalog.elra.info/

 

La propiedad intelectual

enero 12, 2008 en 1:23 pm | Publicado en J.Abaitua | Deja un comentario

¿Qué es?

La propiedad intelectual tiene que ver con las creaciones de la mente: las invenciones, las obras literarias y artísticas, los símbolos, los nombres, las imágenes y los dibujos y modelos utilizados en el comercio.

La propiedad intelectual se divide en dos categorías:

  • la propiedad industrial, que incluye las invenciones, patentes, marcas, dibujos y modelos industriales e indicaciones geográficas de origen
  • el derecho de autor, que abarca las obras literarias y artísticas, tales como las novelas, los poemas y las obras de teatro, las películas, las obras musicales, las obras de arte, tales como los dibujos, pinturas, fotografías y esculturas, y los diseños arquitectónicos.

Fuente:

http://www.wipo.int/about-ip/es/

Creative commons

enero 12, 2008 en 1:18 pm | Publicado en J.Abaitua | Deja un comentario

The Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative work available for others legally to build upon and share. The organization has released several copyright licenses known as Creative Commons licenses. These licenses, depending on the one chosen, restrict only certain rights (or none) of the work.

 Aim

The Creative Commons licenses enable copyright holders to grant some or all of their rights to the public while retaining others through a variety of licensing and contract schemes including dedication to the public domain or open content licensing terms. The intention is to avoid the problems current copyright laws create for the sharing of information.

 History

The Creative Commons licenses were pre-dated by the Open Publication License and the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL). The GFDL was intended mainly as a license for software documentation, but is also in active use by non-software projects such as Wikipedia. The Open Publication License is now largely defunct, and its creator suggests that new projects not use it. Both licenses contained optional parts that, in the opinions of critics, made them less “free”. The GFDL differs from the CC licenses in its requirement that the licensed work be distributed in a form which is “transparent”, i.e., not in a proprietary and/or confidential format.

 Interesting data

  • The Creative Commons was first tested in court in early 2006.
  • Several million pages of web content use Creative Commons licenses.
  • A lot of criticism on:

–the Creative Commons movement and how well it is living up to its perceived values and goals.
–criticism is on the role the Creative Commons plays as an unconcerned corporate filter.Source:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative_commons

Links of interest:

OPAC

enero 12, 2008 en 1:06 pm | Publicado en J.Abaitua | Deja un comentario

¿Qué es OPAC?

OPAC (Online public access catalog) es un catálogo automatizado de acceso público en línea de los materiales de una biblioteca. Generalmente, tanto el personal de la biblioteca como el público tienen acceso a él en varias terminales dentro de la biblioteca o desde el hogar vía Internet. Desde mediados de los 80 se ha sustituido el catálogo de tarjeta por el OPAC en la mayoría de las bibliotecas universitarias y nacionales. Desde mediados de los años 1990, las interfaces tipo texto basados en OPAC están siendo sustituidas por interfaces basadas en Web. El OPAC forma a menudo parte de un sistema bibliotecario integrado.

En la actualidad, unas 30.000 bibliotecas tienen registros bibliográficos en un OPAC del OCLC, llamado WorldCat, que es un catálogo de los materiales de biblioteca realizado con la colaboración de bibliotecas públicas y privadas por todo el mundo, sobre todo en Estados Unidos y Canadá. WorldCat muestra cuántas bibliotecas poseen el mismo libro o material. Los usuarios de WorldCat deben conectar su propio OPAC de su biblioteca para ver la información de las demás bibliotecas. El OCLC WorldCat no es técnicamente un OPAC en sí mismo, sino un Macro OPAC; es una base de datos bibliográfica usada principalmente por el personal de la biblioteca (bibliotecólogos) de las instituciones que tienen una suscripción anual a los servicios de OCLC. No es utilizada por los usuarios o el público en general a menos que su biblioteca local suscriba al servicio de la referencia del OCLC FirstSearch.

El OCLC WorldCat es también investigable mediante los motores de búsqueda como Google y Yahoo, buscando por “OCLC WorldCat Open”.

La mayoría de los sistemas bibliotecarios integrados trabajan en plataforma Windows. Los módulos de OPAC se sirven de listas desplegables, ventanas emergentes, cajas de diálogo, operaciones de ratón, y otros componentes gráficos del interfaz, con el fin de simplificar la entrada de los datos para la búsqueda y formato de visualización de los registros.

¿Cuales son sus proveedores?

Fuente: http://www.wikipedia.es

Aurki

enero 8, 2008 en 9:22 am | Publicado en J.Abaitua | 1 comentario

¿Qué es Aurki?

Aurki es un directorio de recursos en euskera. Se basaba en el directorio-buscador libre Open Directory Project (Dmoz.org), del que era espejo.

Aurki se modificó en el 2005 para integrar el proyecto Jarioa( un proyecto apoyado por la Diputación Foral de Gipuzkoa, con una subvención de la Dirección General de Normalización del Euskera en 2004).

Aurki agrega al rededor de 175 fuentes de información en euskera. Éstas, estan distribuidas en 14 grupos temáticos: Política, Euskera, Ayuntamientos, Noticias locales, etc.

¿Qué servicios ofrece?

  • Google news
  • Lectores de RSS ( Blogilines)
  • Planeta local
  • Directorio de recursos

Links de Interés:

Syndication protocols

enero 8, 2008 en 9:09 am | Publicado en J.Abaitua | Deja un comentario

RSS, Atom and Opml

RSS

What does RSS fefer to?

The initials “RSS” are used to refer to the following formats:

  • Really Simple Syndication (RSS 2.0)
  • RDF Site Summary (RSS 1.0 and RSS 0.90)
  • Rich Site Summary (RSS 0.91)

RSS is colloquially known as Really Simple Syndication. It consists on a family of Web feed formats used to publish frequently updated content such as blog entries, news headlines or podcasts. A feed or web feed is an RSS document which contains either a summary of content from an associated web site or the full text.

Why is RSS very used among people?
Because it gives people the possibility to keep in touch with their favorite web sites.

Atom

The name Atom applies to a pair of related standards. The Atom Syndication Format is an XML language used for web feeds, while the Atom Publishing Protocol (referred to as AtomPub for short) is a simple HTTP-based protocol for creating and updating web resources.

The development of Atom was motivated by the existence of many incompatible versions of the RSS syndication format, all of which had shortcomings, and the poor interoperability, of XML-RPC-based publishing protocols.

Opml

What is OPML?

OPML is the Outline Processor Markup Language. It is an XML format for outlines. In the beginning, it was developed by Radio UserLand as a native file format for an outliner application. Till then, it has been adopted for other uses. Besides, it is the most common being to exchange lists of web feeds between web feed aggregators.

Fuente:

Preguntas curiosas

enero 7, 2008 en 5:47 pm | Publicado en Ana Elejabeitia, General, J.Abaitua | Deja un comentario

¿Sabías que en España hay 48.720.461 líneas de teléfono móvil?

¿Cuántas terminales por ciudadano crees que hay?

Según los últimos datos de la Comisión del Mercado de las Telecomunicaciones (CMT) de agosto de 2007 hay más de una por persona.

¿Cuántas personas crees que han navegado por Internet en los últimos meses?

¿Quieres saber si eres un cibermaleducado? Lee el reportaje de M.R. Sahuquillo

Para más información visitar:

Los protagonistas tecnológicos de 2008

enero 1, 2008 en 6:56 pm | Publicado en Ana Elejabeitia, General, J.Abaitua | Deja un comentario

Si en 2007 fenómenos como Facebook, iPhone o la Nintendo Wii han marcado la evolución de las innovaciones tecnológicas, el vertiginoso desarrollo científico multiplica las expectativas de 2008. Según un estudio de las BBC, las grandes aportaciones técnicas de este año vendrán marcadas por los adelantos en tecnologías de Internet, telefonía móvil y conexiones veloces.

La web portátil

Uno de las grandes barreras de las aplicaciones web son las limitaciones a una conexión de Internet. Aunque la navegación a través de teléfonos móviles ha solucionado la dependencia de los ordenadores, la conexión a la red continúa siendo imprescindible. Durante 2007, se han desarrollado herramientas que borran las fronteras entre el mundo online y el offline como Gears de Google, Air de Adobe o Silverlight de Microsoft, capaces de extraer contenido de Internet y hacerlo accesible fuera de línea. 2008 podría ser su año.

Ultra Móvil PC

Es el sueño dorado: la conversión de la PDA en un verdadero ordenador portátil. Hubo ya un intento fallido en 2006 por el elevado coste y la escasa vida de la batería. Sin embargo la tecnología taiwanesa parece haber encontrado el punto medio: El Asus EEE, un pequeño ordenador portátil de unos 270 euros, cuyo relativo peso ligero, un kilogramo, va en detrimento de la memoria flash, de 4 gigas.

Televisión por Internet

El cada vez más generalizado ADSL2 y ADSL2+, que permite tasas de transferencia de hasta 24/2 Mbps, ha estimulado el lanzamiento de nuevos protocolos de televisión por Internet.

Wimax

Aunque todavía no ha llegado a Europa, el éxito de esta tecnología de redes inalámbricas de largo alcance es un hecho en Estados Unidos y en países africanos como Nigeria. Según Mike Roberts, analista de Informa Media and Telecoms, citado por la BBC, su desembarco en el viejo continente está cada vez más cerca.

Móviles VoIP

La tecnología VoiP (Voz sobre protocolo de Internet) permite hacer llamadas a bajo precio desde la red. Aunque algunas firmas como Jajah o Truphone ofertan ya este sistema en sus teléfonos, todavía no se ha generalizado. No obstante, la aplicación se encuentra todavía en sus primeras etapas de desarrollo y quizás haya que esperar hasta 2009 para una mayor implantación.

Fuente:

 http://www.elpais.com/articulo/internet/protagonistas/tecnologicos/2008/elpeputec/20080101elpepunet_1/Tes

What is Metadata?

noviembre 20, 2007 en 9:16 am | Publicado en J.Abaitua | Deja un comentario

Metadata is structured data which describes the characteristics of a resource. It shares many similar characteristics to the cataloguing that takes place in libraries, museums and archives. The term “meta” derives from the Greek word denoting a nature of a higher order or more fundamental kind. A metadata record consists of a number of pre-defined elements representing specific attributes of a resource, and each element can have one or more values. Below is an example of a simple metadata record:

Element name

Value

Title

Web catalogue

Creator

Dagnija McAuliffe

Publisher

University of Queensland Library

Identifier

http://www.library.uq.edu.au/iad/mainmenu.html

Format

Text/html

Relation

Library Web site

Each metadata schema will usually have the following characteristics:

  • a limited number of elements
  • the name of each element
  • the meaning of each element

Typically, the semantics is descriptive of the contents, location, physical attributes, type (e.g. text or image, map or model) and form (e.g. print copy, electronic file). Key metadata elements supporting access to published documents include the originator of a work, its title, when and where it was published and the subject areas it covers. Where the information is issued in analog form, such as print material, additional metadata is provided to assist in the location of the information, e.g. call numbers used in libraries. The resource community may also define some logical grouping of the elements or leave it to the encoding scheme. For example, Dublin Core may provide the core to which extensions may be added.

Some of the most popular metadata schemas include:

  • Dublin Core
  • AACR2 (Anglo-American Cataloging Rules)
  • GILS (Government Information Locator Service)
  • EAD (Encoded Archives Description)
  • IMS (IMS Global Learning Consortium)
  • AGLS (Australian Government Locator Service)

While the syntax is not strictly part of the metadata schema, the data will be unusable, unless the encoding scheme understands the semantics of the metadata schema. The encoding allows the metadata to be processed by a computer program. Important schemes include:

  • HTML (Hyper-Text Markup Language)
  • SGML (Standard Generalised Markup Language)
  • XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
  • RDF (Resource Description Framework)
  • MARC (MAchine Readable Cataloging)
  • MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)

Metadata may be deployed in a number of ways:

  • Embedding the metadata in the Web page by the creator or their agent using META tags in the HTML coding of the page
  • As a separate HTML document linked to the resource it describes
  • In a database linked to the resource. The records may either have been directly created within the database or extracted from another source, such as Web pages.

The simplest method is for Web page creators to add the metadata as part of creating the page. Creating metadata directly in a database and linking it to the resource, is growing in popularity as an independent activity to the creation of the resources themselves. Increasingly, it is being created by an agent or third party, particularly to develop subject-based gateways.

Source: http://www.library.uq.edu.au/iad/ctmeta4.html

Folksonomies, taxonomies and ontologies

noviembre 6, 2007 en 9:53 am | Publicado en J.Abaitua | Deja un comentario

Folksonomy

Also known as collaborative tagging , social classification, social indexing, social tagging, and other names, is the practice and method of collaboratively creating and managing tags to annotate and categorize content. In contrast to traditional subject indexing, metadata is not only generated by experts but also by creators and consumers of the content. Usually, freely chosen keywords are used instead of a controlled vocabulary.

Folksonomies became popular on the Web around 2004 with social software applications such as social bookmarking or annotating photographs. Websites that support tagging and the principle of folksonomy are referred to in the context of Web 2.0 because participation is very easy and tagging data is used in new ways to find information. For example, tag clouds are frequently used to visualize the most used tags of a folksonomy. The term folksonomy is also used to denote only the set of tags that are created in social tagging.

Typically, folksonomies are Internet-based, although they are also used in other contexts. Folksonomic tagging is intended to make a body of information increasingly easy to search, discover, and navigate over time. A well-developed folksonomy is ideally accessible as a shared vocabulary that is both originated by, and familiar to, its primary users. Two widely cited examples of websites using folksonomic tagging are Flickr and del.icio.us, although it has been suggested that Flickr is not a good example of folksonomy.

As folksonomies develop in Internet-mediated social environments, users can (generally) discover who created a given folksonomy tag, and see the other tags that this person created. In this way, folksonomy users often discover the tag sets of another user who tends to interpret and tag content in a way that makes sense to them. The result is often an immediate and rewarding gain in the user’s capacity to find related content (practice known as ‘pivot browsing’). Part of the appeal of folksonomy is its inherent subversiveness: when faced with the choice of the search tools that Web sites provide, folksonomies can be seen as a rejection of the search engine status quo in favor of tools that are created by the community.

Folksonomy creation and searching tools are not part of the underlying World Wide Web protocols. Folksonomies arise in Web-based communities where provisions are made at the site level for creating and using tags. These communities are established to enable Web users to label and share user-generated content, such as photographs, or to collaboratively label existing content, such as Web sites, books, works in the scientific and scholarly literatures, and blog entries.

Taxonomy

is the practice and science of classification. The word comes from the Greek τάξις, taxis, ‘order’ + νόμος, nomos, ‘law’ or ‘science’. Taxonomies, or taxonomic schemes, are composed of taxonomic units known as taxa (singular taxon), or kinds of things that are arranged frequently in a hierarchical structure, typically related by subtype-supertype relationships, also called parent-child relationships. In such a subtype-supertype relationship the subtype kind of thing has by definition the same constraints as the supertype kind of thing plus one or more additional constraints. For example, car is a subtype of vehicle. So any car is also a vehicle, but not every vehicle is a car. So, a thing needs to satisfy more constraints to be a car than to be a vehicle.

Ontologies

An ontology is a data model that represents a set of concepts within a domain and the relationships between those concepts. It is used to reason about the objects within that domain.Ontologies are used in artificial intelligence, the semantic web, software engineering, biomedical informatics and information architecture as a form of knowledge representation about the world or some part of it. Ontologies generally describe:

  • Individuals: the basic or “ground level” objects
  • Classes: sets, collections, or types of objects
  • Attributes: properties, features, characteristics, or parameters that objects can have and share
  • Relations: ways that objects can be related to one another
  • Events: the changing of attributes or relations

See also:

Folksonomy:

Taxonomy:

Ontologies:

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org

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